In April 2008 I met an American national in Colombo who works for the World Bank in Washington, DC. At that time both Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama were contesting for the Democratic Party Presidential nomination and John McCain was already the sole contender for the Republican Party Presidential nomination. When we conversed about the upcoming American Presidential election he told me that, although in his opinion John McCain was too old for the office of the President, he believed American people are still not â€œready” for a woman or non-white person to become the President of the United States.
His prognosis was proved wrong on November 04th when the American people made history by electing their first African American President. I was fortunate to be just a few blocks away from the White House to witness this historic moment of the American people; minority communities in particular who overwhelmingly voted for Barack Obama. My thoughts went back home; can we Sri Lankans ever make the same epic history? I remembered the pronunciations by heads of two pillars of the Sri Lankan state, viz. the chief executive and the head of the armed forces. In 1994, the then President of Sri Lanka claimed that the minority communities are mere branches of the majority Sinhalese community. Just a couple of months ago, in September 2008, the chief of the Sri Lanka Army said that Sri Lanka belongs to the Sinhalese (majority community) and minority communities should not demand â€œtoo much”.
It is not that this kind of racial supremacy exists in Sri Lanka alone; it is all over the world, but America has crossed this supremacist disposition on November 04th 2008. United Kingdom is an example of the supremacism of the majority community, viz. the English. I still vividly remember the national elections of 1992 when John Major of the Conservative Party (incumbent Prime Minister) and Neil Kinnock of the Labour Party (Opposition Leader) were contending for Premiership, while I was a postgraduate student in the UK. Whilst most opinion polls showed a very close run between the two parties, on the day of the election (April 09th) The Sun newspaper (the most popular tabloid at that time) had a banner headline and lead story that was widely believed to have contributed to the loss of the Labour Party and its leader Neil Kinnock at that election. The Sun asked the British people to switch off their lights in order to mark dark times ahead if a â€œWelshman”, Neil Kinnock, was elected. Despite moving his Labour Party away from leftwing politics, Neil Kinnock lost to John Major largely due to his ethnicity, I believe. Even now, there are undercurrents of racism whipped up by certain media (and perhaps by certain sections of the Conservative Party as well) against the incumbent Prime Minister Gordon Brown who is a Scotsman. These experiences indicate that it is a Herculean task for a person other than English to be elected Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. In this respect, American people have proved to be above the rest in the World.
The case of Sri Lanka is different from the United States or the United Kingdom at least in one important respect. In the case of African Americans, Scottish or the Welsh, they by and large speak the language of the majority community and their religion is by and large the same as that of the majority community (different denominations of Christianity notwithstanding). Whereas in the case of Sri Lanka, Tamil and Muslim minority communities by and large speak a different language and follow different religions than the majority community. Thus, whilst the majority community speaks Sinhalese and is largely Buddhist, Tamils and Moors speak Tamil and are largely Hindu and Muslim respectively.
Nevertheless, the demographic composition of the United States is almost the same as in Sri Lanka; in the former the majority community accounts for 73% of the total population (minority communities account for 27%) and in the latter it is 74% (minority communities account for 26%). In spite of the differences in ethnicity, a common language binds the people of America (religious sectarianisms notwithstanding), which is not the case in Sri Lanka. Having said that, the differences between the United States and Sri Lanka go beyond the differences in languages or religions of the peoples of these two countries. It is more to do with the fundamental differences in the governance structures of the two countries: for example, America is a federal state while Sri Lanka is a unitary state; America does not have a state religion whereas Sri Lanka does. Moreover, affirmative action programmes have made America an inclusive society (notwithstanding enduring discrimination in many respects even now), whereas in Sri Lanka lukewarm implementation of the dual official language policy and discrimination in education and employment opportunities have alienated the minority communities. These are some of the fundamental differences between the two countries.
Ironically, by and large it is the Western educated and/or domiciled elites of the Sri Lankan society (from both the majority and minority communities) who have been and are insular and retrogressive. The foregoing is evident when one reads the views and opinions of the writers to the Sri Lankan media (or the diaspora media â€“ both electronic and print â€“ in Europe and North America), both English and vernacular language ones. Remember that person with a Doctorate from the London University who crafted the Republican Constitution of 1972, which proclaimed Buddhism as the state religion of Sri Lanka. Many racist propagandists, bureaucrats, policy advisors and members of parliament of the current Sri Lankan regime are either citizens or dual-citizens of Western countries, particularly America and Australia. Similarly, by and large, it is the Tamil citizens of several western countries who were/are advisors to and apologists of the LTTE fascism. It is these exclusivists who are prominent contributors to popular Tamil newspapers in Sri Lanka and diaspora media.
Both the leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the chief of the Sri Lanka Army have sent their children to Europe (England & Ireland) and United States respectively for higher education. The children, siblings and relatives of top leaders of the LTTE and the State are citizens or permanent residence of one of the European, North American or Australasian countries. While it was reported that the chief of Sri Lanka Army is an American green card holder and the Defence Secretary is an American citizen, I wouldn’t be surprised if the LTTE leader (along with some other top rung leaders) has an open invitation to be a citizen of Norway and/or any other Scandinavian country.
World should also remember that the widow of the chief ideologue of the LTTE and self-confessed perpetrator of crimes against humanity and war criminal, Mrs. Adele Balasingham, is a British citizen. She has confessed publicly, both in writing and verbally, that she was the one who set up the women’s brigades of the LTTE, largely drawn from underage girls conscripted from schools in the Eastern and Northern parts of Sri Lanka. In spite of these self-confessions, Adele Balasingham lives and continues to propagate the fascist ideals of the LTTE from her South London residence (most probably bought with criminal money). Would this not make the British State complicit in crimes against humanity and war crimes in Sri Lanka? Parents of innocent Tamil children crucified in the battlefield in the name of liberation, spouses and parents of Tamils who have ‘disappeared’, and others from both the majority and minority communities who have endured violation of their fundamental rights in the cause of â€œhumanitarian war” would one day seek justice from the American and British States whose citizens or residents could have been complicit in such heinous crimes against humanity.
Can the offsprings of the supremacists of both the State and the non-State in Sri Lanka convince and free their respective fathers out of their insular mindsets? Could the enigma of Barack Obama prick the conscience of the State and the non-State powers that be in Sri Lanka? Can the exemplary message of the American people inspire the general public in Sri Lanka (irrespective of ethnic affiliation) to break out of the shackles of parochialism, communalism and fascism?
If you need inspiration watch and listen to the Obama victory song, see It’s A New Day here.
Muttukrishna Sarvananthan, Ph.D. (Wales) M.Sc. (Bristol) M.Sc. (Salford) B.A. (Hons) (Delhi), is the Principal Researcher of the Point Pedro Institute of Development, Point Pedro, Northern Sri Lanka and a Fulbright Visiting Research Scholar at the Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC, U.S.A. Corrections, comments and suggestions are welcome to [email protected]